In this post I am revisiting my lesson plan, version 1.0 from yesterday’s post.
The document for lesson plan version 1.0 can be found here.
This lesson plan has some issues, all of which I hope to be addressing, but for today I am going to analyze it through the lens of the TPACK model. This morning’s post on TPACK (and garlic presses) gives an overview of the TPAK framework. I highly recommend this video for a quick and easy to digest explanation.
This expanded graphic has more description of the three larger circles (T, P and C), and also of the 2-part intersections: TPK, PCK, and TCK. The final intersection, the center of the diagram, is the 3-part intersection of TPACK.
The T, P and C elements of this lesson plan are:
Technology: Overhead projector, transparency, marker
Content: Drake’s voyage of discovery and defeat of the Spanish armada
Pedagogical method: Direct instruction, demonstration, reading, review by teacher
The context of the lesson is a 5th grade classroom, with very few technical resources. Students are used to a combination of lectures and readings. They have background on the Age of Exploration and the ongoing conflicts between England and Spain.
Funds of knowledge from which I, as the teacher, must draw, are varied.
My technology knowledge need only to extend as far as how to use an overhead projector and transparency sheets.
My technological content knowledge must involve the route of Drake’s voyage, and how to trace it on the transparency of the map.
The pedagogical content knowledge I need to know is how students assimilate information from maps, and from copying. I need to know if they are capable of absorbing the lecture while simultaneously drawing the route on their own maps.
My pedagogical technology knowledge is how to move my hand over the transparency while still giving students a clear view of where I am drawing. I need to draw in keeping with the lecture I am giving.
The special interactions of the technology, pedagogy make for a poor lesson. The potential TPACK problems are that students won’t be able to see what I am drawing, and that they will concentrate on the drawing at at the expense of understanding the lecture. This lesson, at its best, allows students to draw a map that they will later study. They are making notes, and not actively engaged in the learning. The pedagogy is poor, to start with, and made worse by the distraction of the technology and the dual tasks of drawing and listening.
The context of the lesson needs special attention. Without the context of the content, students will be focussing on a set of facts. The themes of this unit, it’s content context, could easily be overlooked. This lesson was given in a classroom context where very little technology was used, but in this case, using the technology of the overhead projector has actually produced a worse lesson that if other pedagogies (with or without other technologies) had been used.
TPACK is an excellent model for analyzing the weaknesses of this lesson plan. I am looking forward to revising this lesson plan to make it TPACK-friendly. The opportunities for technology are many, and by using TPACK, I can ensure the content is driving the tools, and not the other way around. With TPACK, I hope to produce an integrated lesson plan, and not one that has been bent and shoved to fit into whatever technology is at hand.
Mishra, P. & Koehler. M. J. (2009). Too cool for school? No way! Using the TPACK framework: You can have your hot tools and teach with them, too. Learning & Leading with Technology, 36(7), 14-18.
Rosenberg, J & Koehler, M.J (2014). Context and Technological Pedagogical Content Knowledge: A Content Analysis. Preview version. http://joshuamrosenberg.com/wp-content/uploads/2013/02/proceeding_131183.pdf
SAMR Model Explained for Teachers.
Anderson, M (2014). Don’t Use Technology….Do Use Technology….
College of Education Michigan State University TPACK Wiki. What is TPACK?